As the cold weather of winter starts to set in - it's a good time to think about how calves can be affected by cooler temperatures. All animals have what is called a “thermoneutral zone” (TNZ). As shown in the picture below, it is the temperature range where animals don't need to expend energy to maintain
The Salmonella bacteria is a serious cause of disease in calves and cows. It most often presents as diarrhoea - in an individual animal or as an outbreak, with many animals falling sick. There are thousands of different strains of Salmonella: typhimurium, bovismorbificans, zanzibar, anatum, dublin and newport are the most common strains we’ve cultured
Because of the structure of the bovine placenta, calves are born without any antibodies (aka "immunoglobulins" or "IgG"). Instead a calf relies on drinking colostrum, which contains antibodies that the cow has transferred from her blood stream. Once ingested, these colostral antibodies still have to be absorbed across the calf's intestines into their blood stream.